Non-determinism in conensus-relevant code will cause the blockchain to halt. There are quite a few sources of non-determinism, some of which are specific to the Go language:


Below we can see an iteration over a amounts map. If k.GetPool fails for more than one asset, then different nodes will fail with different errors, causing the chain to halt.

func (k msgServer) CheckAmounts(goCtx context.Context, msg *types.MsgCheckAmounts) (*types.MsgCheckAmountsResponse, error) {
    ctx := sdk.UnwrapSDKContext(goCtx)

    amounts := make(map[Asset]int)
    for asset, coin := range allMoney.Coins {
        amounts[asset] = Compute(coin)

    total int := 0
    for asset, f := range amounts {
        poolSize, err := k.GetPool(ctx, asset, f)
        if err != nil {
            return nil, err
        total += poolSize

    if total == 0 {
        return nil, errors.New("Zero total")

    return &types.MsgCheckAmountsResponse{}, nil

Even if we fix the map problem, it is still possible that the total overflows for nodes running on 32-bit architectures earlier than for the rest of the nodes, again causing the chain split.


  • Use static analysis, for example custom CodeQL rules
  • Test your application with nodes running on various architectures or require nodes to run on a specific one
  • Prepare and test procedures for recovering from a blockchain split

External examples