Unchecked from address in L1 Handler function

A function with the l1_handler annotation is intended to be called from L1. The first parameter of the l1_handler function is always from, which represents the msg.sender of the L1 transaction that attempted to invoke the function on Starknet. If the l1_handler function is designed to be invoked from a specific address on mainnet, not checking the from address may allow anyone to call the function, opening up access control vulnerabilities.


The following Starknet bridge contract's owner, specified in the uint256[] calldata payload array, is designed to be called only from the setOwnerOnL2() function. Even though the owner is checked on the solidity side, the lack of validation of the from_address parameter allows anyone to call the function from an arbitrary L1 contract, becoming the owner of the bridge on L2.

address public immutable OWNER;
address public immutable MESSENGER_CONTRACT;
address public immutable L2_BRIDGE_ADDRESS;
constructor(address _owner, address _messenger, address _bridge) {
    OWNER = _owner;
    MESSENGER_CONTRACT = _messenger;
    L2_BRIDGE_ADDRESS = _bridge;


function setOwnerOnL2(uint256[] calldata payload, uint256 selector) external {
    require(owner == msg.sender, "not owner");
    IStarknetMessaging(MESSENGER_CONTRACT).sendMessageToL2(L2_BRIDGE_ADDRESS, selector, payload);
struct Storage {
    owner: ContractAddress

fn set_owner_from_l1(ref self: ContractState, from_address: felt252, new_owner: ContractAddress) {


  • Make sure to validate the from_address, otherwise any L1 contract can invoke the annotated Starknet function.
  • Consider using Caracal, as it comes with a detector for verifying if the from_address is unchecked in an l1_handler function.